Fertilizer characteristics and fertilization techniques of soybean

In recent years, with the adjustment of agricultural structure and the breeding of some new high-yield soybean varieties, people have renewed interest in planting soybeans. However, because many farmers do not master the fertility characteristics of soybeans, fertilizer requirements and fertilization techniques, they mistakenly believe that soybeans have nitrogen fixation and do not need to be fertilized. Therefore, the cultivation of soybeans is extensive, and the harvest is wide, resulting in low yields. This gives us an urgent question, how to apply science fertilization and capture the harvest of soybeans?

First, the characteristics of soybean fertilizer requirements 1, soybean itself has nitrogen fixation. Fertilizers required for soybean growth and development are supplied by and absorbed from Rhizobium. The nitrogen in the fixed air of Rhizobium is used for soybean, and the peak of nitrogen fixation is concentrated in the flowering to the granule stage, and the nitrogen fixation ability is weak before flowering and late in the drum.

2, soy is the role of more fertilizer. According to the study, for every 100 kilograms of soybean seeds produced, it is necessary to absorb 6.5 kilograms of pure nitrogen, 1.5 kilograms of available phosphorus, and 3.2 kilograms of effective potassium. The ratio of the three is roughly 4:1:2, which is higher than rice, wheat and corn. Rhizobium can only fix nitrogen, and the nitrogen supplied to soybeans only accounts for 50% to 60% of the total nitrogen requirement of soybean. Therefore, a certain amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer must also be applied to meet the needs of its normal growth and development.

3. There is a difference in the amount of fertilizer required for different growth stages of soybean. Flowering to the granule stage is the period in which soybeans absorb the most nutrients, and the nutrients are absorbed less before flowering and after bulging.

Second, soybean fertilization technology 1, more organic fertilizer. Using more organic fertilizer as the base fertilizer is not only beneficial to the growth and development of soybean, but also beneficial to the propagation of rhizobium and the formation of nodules, and enhances nitrogen fixation capacity.

Because the sowing time is tight, it is not too late to apply the base fertilizer to the wheat field. It should be emphasized that the organic fertilizer is applied to the wheat field in the front and the wheat field is fertilized. According to the research, the foundation of the former glutinous fertility is good, and the application of organic fertilizer is sufficient, and the effect of increasing soybean yield is obvious.

2, skillfully apply nitrogen fertilizer. Soybeans require more nitrogen, but because of their own nitrogen-fixing capacity, there is not much nitrogen fertilizer to be applied. The key is to highlight a "clear" word.

For medium-low fertility fields, timely application of nitrogen fertilizer has a better yield-increasing effect; fields with higher fertility are not obvious, and excessive application is not only wasteful, but also causes a reduction in production. Generally, the plot can apply 5 kg of urea per acre or 15 kg of ammonium bicarbonate as the base fertilizer; the high-fertilizer field can be used less or not with nitrogen fertilizer, and the thinner soil with a small amount of nitrogen fertilizer is better, which is beneficial to soybean seedling and flower bud differentiation. However, the amount of fertilizer used should be less, and the fertilizer should be isolated to avoid burning. Generally, the bulk type of fertilizer is applied with 3 to 5 kg of urea per mu, and 10 to 15 kg of superphosphate is suitable, or 2 to 3 kg of urea per acre and 3 kg of diammonium phosphate are more obvious.

Soybean is applied with nitrogen fertilizer before or during flowering, and 3 to 5 kg of urea per mu is also used to increase yield. The top dressing can be applied before the cultivating, and then immediately cultivated. Fertilizer can not be applied to this fertilizer.

3. Increase the application of phosphate fertilizer. Soybeans require more phosphorus. So far, most of the soils have shown a certain degree of phosphorus deficiency. Therefore, phosphate fertilizer should be added. Phosphate fertilizer has poor mobility in the soil. Therefore, phosphate fertilizer should be used as base fertilizer or early application of fertilizer. Generally, 15 to 20 kg of calcium phosphate or 8 to 10 kg of diammonium phosphate can be applied per acre. If the former glutinous wheat is applied with phosphate fertilizer, there is no phosphorus deficiency in the soil, and phosphate fertilizer can no longer be applied when planting soybeans.

4, roots outside the fertilizer. Soybean enters the flower pod stage, which requires a variety of nutrients. After the drum stage, the plant system begins to age, and the absorption capacity decreases. Soybeans often cause early decay due to lack of fertilizer. Soybean leaves have strong absorption capacity for nutrients. Foliar spray fertilizer can prolong the functional period of the leaves. The fertilizer utilization rate is high. After the drum stage, the roots of the plants begin to age, and the absorption capacity decreases. Soybeans are often caused by lack of fertilizer. Early decay. Soybean leaves have a strong absorption capacity for nutrients. Foliar spray fertilizer can prolong the functional period of the leaves. The fertilizer utilization rate is high, and the effect on the granules is obvious. Generally, the yield can be increased by 10% to 20%. Each mu can use 1 kilogram of diammonium phosphate or 0.5 to 1 kilogram of urea or 1.5 to 2 kilograms of superphosphate, or 0.2 to 0.3 kilograms of potassium dihydrogen phosphate plus 100 grams of borax, spray 50 to 60 kilograms of water on sunny days. If the superphosphate is used, it should be pre-soaked for 24 to 28 hours, then filtered and then sprayed. The sprayed part is preferably the back of the blade. Spray once every 7 to 10 days from the beginning of the pod, and spray 2 to 3 times. In addition, combined with root spray fertilizer, adding appropriate varieties and appropriate amount of plant growth regulators in the fertilizer solution, the yield increase effect will be better.
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